Test status granted - 1932


First Test match v England at Lord's, London, 25–28 June 1932

Captain M.S. Dhoni

Coach Gary Kirsten

Official ICC Test and ODI ranking

1st (Test)

2nd (ODI)

   

The Indian cricket team is the national cricket team of India. Governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), it is a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) with Test and One Day International (ODI) status.


The Indian cricket team is currently ranked first (as of 21 March 2010) by the ICC in Tests and second (as of 21 March 2010) in ODIs.

As of March 2010, the Indian team has played 437 Test matches, winning 104, losing 137 and drawing 195 of its games, with 1 match ending in a tie.[4] India has a relatively better record in One Day Internationals, winning over 50% of matches played.


Currently, Gary Kirsten is the head coach while Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the captain in all forms of the game.

Under the leadership of Dhoni, the Indian team has set a national record for most back-to-back ODI wins (9 straight wins)[6] and has emerged as one of the most formidable teams in international cricket.


Although cricket was introduced to India by European merchant sailors in the 18th-century and the first cricket club in India was established in Calcutta in 1792, India's national cricket team didn't play their first Test match until 25 June 1932 at Lord's.

They became the sixth team to be granted Test cricket status. In their first fifty years of international cricket, India proved weaker than Australia and England, winning only 35 of the 196 test matches.

The team, however, gained strength near the end of the 1970s with the emergence of players such as Sunil Gavaskar, Kapil Dev, Mohammed Azharuddin and the Indian spin quartet.

Traditionally much stronger at home than abroad, the Indian team has improved its overseas form since the start of the 21st century. It won the Cricket World Cup in 1983 and was runners-up in 2003.

It also won the inaugural World Twenty20 in 2007. The current team contains many of the world's leading players, including Sachin Tendulkar and Rahul Dravid who hold numerous cricketing world records.

   


Selection for the Indian cricket team occurs through the BCCI's zonal selection policy, where each of the five zones is represented with one selector and one of the members nominated by BCCI as the Chairman of the Selection Committee. This has sometimes led to controversy as to whether these selectors are biased towards their zones.


The current chairman of Selection Committee is Krishnamachari Srikkanth. Yashpal Sharma, Narendra Hirwani, Surendra Bhave and Raja Venkat are the other members of the selection committee whose terms started in September 2008 with BCCI holding the rights for a one-year extension.


The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) is the governing body for the Indian cricket team and first class cricket in India. The Board has been operating since 1929 and represents India at the International Cricket Council.

It is amongst the richest sporting organizations in the world, and it sold media rights for India's matches from 2006-2010 for USD 612,000,000.

It manages the Indian team's sponsorships, its future tours and team selection.


The International Cricket Council determines India's upcoming matches through its future tours program.

However, the BCCI, with its influential financial position in the cricketing world, has often challenged the ICC's program and called for more tours between India, Australia, Pakistan and England which are more likely to earn more revenue as opposed to tours with Bangladesh or Zimbabwe.

In the past, the BCCI has also come into conflict with the ICC regarding sponsorships and the legitimacy of the ICC Champions Trophy.

The British brought cricket to India in the early 1700s, with the first cricket match played in 1721.

In 1848, the Parsi community in Bombay formed the Oriental Cricket Club, the first cricket club to be established by Indians. After slow beginnings, the Europeans eventually invited the Parsis to play a match in 1877.

By 1912, the Parsis,Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims of Bombay played a quadrangular tournament with the Europeans every year.

In the early 1900s, some Indians went on to play for the English cricket team. Some of these, such as Ranjitsinhji and KS Duleepsinhji were greatly appreciated by the British and their names went on to be used for the Ranji Trophy and Duleep Trophy- two major first class tournaments in India.

In 1911, an Indian team went on their first official tour of England, but only played English county teams and not the English cricket team.

India was invited into The Imperial Cricket Council in 1926 and made its debut as a Test-cricket-playing-nation in 1932 led by CK Nayudu.[15] The match was given Test status despite being only 3 days in length.

The team was not strong in its batting at this point and went on to lose by 158 runs.[16] The Indian team continued to improve throughout the 1930s and '40s but did not achieve an international victory during this period.

The team's first series as an independent country was in 1948 against Sir Donald Bradman's Invincibles (a name given to the Australian cricket team of that time). Australia won the five-match series, 4-0.


India recorded their first Test victory against England at Madras (now Chennai) in 1952.

Later in the year, they won their first Test series, which was against Pakistan.

They continued their improvement throughout the early 1950s with a series win against New Zealand in 1956. However, they did not win again in the remainder of the decade and lost badly to strong Australian and English sides.

The next decade saw India's reputation develop as a team with a strong record at home. Although they only won two series (both against New Zealand), they managed to draw home series against Pakistan, England and Australia.


The key to India's bowling in the 1970s were the Indian spin quartet - Bishen Bedi, E.A.S. Prasanna, BS Chandrasekhar and Srinivas Venkataraghavan. This period also saw the emergence of two of India's best ever batsmen, Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath.

Indian pitches have had tendency to support spin and the spin quartet exploited this to create collapses in opposing batting lineups.

These players were responsible for the back-to-back series wins in 1971 in the West Indies and in England, under the captaincy of Ajit Wadekar. Gavaskar scored 774 runs in the West Indian series while Dilip Sardesai's 112 played a big part in their one Test win.

A graph showing India's Test match results against all Test match teams from 1932 to September 2006
The advent of One-Day International cricket in 1971 created a new dimension in the cricket world.

However, India was not considerably strong in ODIs at this point and batsmen such as the captain Gavaskar were known for their defence-based approaches to batting.

India began as a weak team in ODIs and did not manage to qualify for the second round in the first two editions of the Cricket World Cup. Gavaskar famously blocked his way to 36 not out off 174 balls against England in the first World Cup in 1975, India scored just 132 for 3 and lost by 202 runs.


In contrast, India fielded a strong team in Test matches and were particularly strong at home where their combination of stylish batsman and beguiling spinners where seen at their best.

India set a then test record in the third Test against the West Indies at Port-of-Spain in 1976 when they chased 403 to win thanks to 112 from Vishwanath.

This West Indian defeat is considered to be a watershed in the history of their cricket because it led to captain Clive Lloyd dispensing with spin altogether and relying entirely on a four man pace attack.

In November 1976 the team established another record by scoring 524 for 9 declared against New Zealand at Kanpur without an individual scoring a century.

There were six fifties, the highest being 70 by Mohinder Amarnath. The innings was the eighth instance in Test cricket where all eleven batsmen reached double figures.

   
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